Jump to content

Petronas Towers

Coordinates: 3°9′27.3150″N 101°42′42.9386″E / 3.157587500°N 101.711927389°E / 3.157587500; 101.711927389
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Petronas Tower)

3°9′27.3150″N 101°42′42.9386″E / 3.157587500°N 101.711927389°E / 3.157587500; 101.711927389

Petronas Towers
Malay: Menara Berkembar Petronas
Official wordmark
The Petronas Towers at dusk, 2019
Alternative namesPetronas Twin Towers, KLCC Twin Towers
Record height
Tallest in the world from 1998 to 2004[I]
Preceded bySears Tower
Surpassed byTaipei 101
General information
TypeCommercial offices and tourist attraction
Architectural stylePostmodern Islamic architecture
LocationJalan Ampang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Groundbreaking1 January 1992; 32 years ago (1992-01-01)
Construction started1 March 1993; 31 years ago (1993-03-01)
Completed1 March 1996; 28 years ago (1996-03-01)
Opened31 August 1999; 24 years ago (1999-08-31)
Inaugurated31 August 1999; 24 years ago (1999-08-31)
Renovated16 September 2011; 12 years ago (2011-09-16)
CostUS$1.6 billion[2]
OwnerKLCC Holdings Sdn Bhd
Architectural451.9 m (1,483 ft)[1]
Tip451.9 m (1,483 ft)
Antenna spire46 m (151 ft)
Roof405.9 m (1,332 ft)
Top floor375 m (1,230 ft) (Level 88)[1]
Observatory370 m (1,210 ft) (Level 86)
Technical details
Floor count88 (with 5 being underground)[1]
Floor area395,000 m2 (4,252,000 sq ft)
Lifts/elevators38 (each tower)
Design and construction
Architect(s)César Pelli[1]
DeveloperKLCC Holdings Sdn Bhd[1]
Structural engineerThornton Tomasetti & Ranhill Bersekutu[1]
Main contractorTower 1: Hazama Corporation
Tower 2: Samsung Engineering & Construction and Kukdong Engineering & Construction
City Center: B.L. Harbert International
Other information
Public transit access KJ10  KLCC LRT station

The Petronas Towers (Malay: Menara Berkembar Petronas), also known as the Petronas Twin Towers and colloquially the KLCC Twin Towers, are an interlinked pair of 88-story supertall skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, standing at 451.9 metres (1,483 feet). From 1998 to 2004, they were officially designated as the tallest buildings in the world until they were surpassed by the completion of Taipei 101. The Petronas Towers are the world's tallest twin skyscrapers and remained the tallest buildings in Malaysia until 2019, when they were surpassed by The Exchange 106. The Petronas Towers are a major landmark of Kuala Lumpur, along with the nearby Kuala Lumpur Tower and Merdeka 118, and are visible in many places across the city.

History and architecture


The Petronas Towers' structural system is a tube in tube design, invented by Bangladeshi-American architect Fazlur Rahman Khan.[7][8] Applying a tube-structure for extreme tall buildings is a common phenomenon.[9][10] The 88-floor towers are constructed largely of reinforced concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art, a reflection of Malaysia's Muslim religion.[11] Another Islamic influence on the design is that the cross section of the towers is based on a Rub el Hizb, albeit with circular sectors added to meet office space requirements.[12] The circular sectors are similar to the bottom part of the Qutub Minar.

Development of the Petronas Towers Tower 1 level 43 floor plan from a Rub el Hizb symbol. [13]
The cross section of the Petronas Towers is based on a Rub el Hizb, albeit with circular sectors similar to the bottom part of the Qutub Minar.
The Petronas Towers at night, 2008

The towers were designed by Argentine-American architect César Pelli. A distinctive postmodern style was chosen to create a 21st-century icon for Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Planning on the Petronas Towers started on 1 January 1992 and included rigorous tests and simulations of wind and structural loads on the design. Seven years of construction followed at the former site of the original Selangor Turf Club, beginning on 1 March 1993 with excavation, which involved moving 500 truckloads of earth every night to dig down 30 metres (98 ft) below the surface. The construction of the superstructure commenced on 1 April 1994. Interiors with furniture were completed on 1 January 1996, the spires of Tower 1 and Tower 2 were completed on 1 March 1996, 3 years after its construction was started, and the first batch of Petronas personnel moved into the building on 1 January 1997. The building was officially opened by the Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad, on 31 August 1999.[14] The twin towers were built on the site of Kuala Lumpur's race track. It was the tallest structure in Malaysia at the time of its completion.[15] Test boreholes found that the original construction site effectively sat on the edge of a cliff. One half of the site was decayed limestone while the other half was soft rock. The entire site was moved 61 metres (200 ft) to allow the buildings to sit entirely on the soft rock.[16] Because of the depth of the bedrock, the buildings were built on the world's deepest foundations.[17] 104 concrete piles, ranging from 60 to 114 metres (197 to 374 ft) deep, were bored into the ground. The concrete raft foundation, comprising 13,200 cubic metres (470,000 cu ft) of concrete was continuously poured through a period of 54 hours for each tower. The raft is 4.6 metres (15 ft) thick, weighs 32,500 tonnes (35,800 tons) and held the world record for the largest concrete pour until 2007.[16] The foundations were completed within 12 months by Bachy Soletanche and required massive amounts of concrete.[18]

As a result of the Malaysian government specifying that the buildings be completed in six years, two construction consortia were hired to meet the deadline, one for each tower. Tower 1, the west tower (left in the top-right photograph) was built by a Japanese consortium led by the Hazama Corporation (JA Jones Construction Co., MMC Engineering Services Sdn Bhd, Ho Hup Construction Co. Bhd and Mitsubishi Corp) while Tower 2, the east tower (right in the top-right photograph) was built by a South Korean consortium led by the Samsung C&T Corporation (Kukdong Engineering & Construction and Syarikat Jasatera Sdn Bhd).

Early into construction a batch of concrete failed a routine strength test causing construction to come to a complete halt. All the completed floors were tested but it was found that only one had used a bad batch and it was demolished. As a result of the concrete failure, each new batch was tested before being poured. The halt in construction had cost US$700,000 per day and led to three separate concrete plants being set up on the site to ensure that if one produced a bad batch, the other two could continue to supply concrete. The sky bridge contract was completed by Kukdong Engineering & Construction. Tower 2 (Samsung C&T) became the first to reach the world's tallest building at the time.

Due to the huge cost of importing steel, the towers were constructed on a cheaper radical design of super high-strength reinforced concrete.[19] High-strength concrete is a material familiar to Asian contractors and twice as effective as steel in sway reduction; however, it makes the building twice as heavy on its foundation as a comparable steel building. Supported by 23-by-23 metre concrete cores[20] and an outer ring of widely spaced super columns, the towers use a sophisticated structural system that accommodates its slender profile and provides 560,000 square metres of column-free office space.[21] Below the twin towers is Suria KLCC, a shopping mall, and Petronas Philharmonic Hall, the home of the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra.

Notable events

  • On 15 April 1999, Felix Baumgartner set the world record for BASE jumping (since broken) by jumping off a window cleaning crane on the Petronas Towers.[22][23]
  • Thousands of people were evacuated on 12 September 2001 after a bomb threat the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the World Trade Center towers in New York City. Bomb disposal squads found no explosives in the towers, but they nevertheless evacuated the premises. Workers and shoppers were allowed to return three hours later, around noon. No one was hurt during the evacuation.[24]
  • On the evening of 4 November 2005, a fire broke out in the cinema complex of the Suria KLCC shopping centre below the Petronas Towers, triggering panic among patrons. There were no reports of injuries. The buildings were largely empty, except the shopping mall, Suria KLCC, because of the late hour; the only people involved were moviegoers and some diners in restaurants.[25]
  • On the morning of 1 September 2009, French urban climber Alain "Spiderman" Robert, using only his bare hands and feet and with no safety devices, scaled to the top of Tower Two in just under 2 hours after two previous efforts had ended in arrest.[26] In his first attempt on 20 March 1997, police arrested him at the 60th floor, 28 floors away from the "summit". His second attempt, on 20 March 2007, exactly 10 years later, was also stopped on the same floor, though on the other tower.[27]

Anchor tenants


Tower One is fully occupied by Petronas and a number of its subsidiaries and associate companies, while the office spaces in Tower Two are mostly available for lease to other companies.[28] A number of companies have offices in Tower Two, including SapuraOMV Upstream (Sarawak) Inc., Huawei Technologies, AVEVA, Al Jazeera English, Carigali Hess, Bloomberg, Boeing, IBM, Khazanah Nasional Berhad, McKinsey & Co, WIPRO Limited, TCS, HCLTech, Krawler, Microsoft, The Agency (a modelling company) and Reuters.

Floor distribution

Levels Tower 1 Tower 2
88 Mechanical
86 Lounge 2 Observatory Deck
85 Boardroom Multimedia Conference Room
84M3 Mechanical
83 Lounge 1 Observatory Deck Gift Shop
82 Office Zone 5
73 Office Zone 4
60 Office Zone 3
42 Sky Bridge connected to Tower 2, Sky Lobby Sky Bridge connected to Tower 1, Sky Lobby, Malaysian Petroleum Club
40 Conference Centre, Executive Dining Room
39 Mechanical
37 Conference Centre
36 Office Zone 2
23 Office Zone 1
7 Mechanical
5 Petronas Petroleum Resource Centre, Petrosains Discovery Centre Petrosains Discovery Centre
3 Surau Al-Muhsinin Petronas Art Gallery
2 Petronas Philharmonic Hall
1 Entrance Lobby
Ground Level
Concourse Mezzanine Mechanical, Loading Dock
Concourse Level Observatory Deck Entrance, Gift Shop, Petronas Cards Centre, Mesra Shoppe, Twin Towers Fitness Centre
P1 Carpark, Mechanical

(the given chart is the floor arrangement according to the level arrangement.)



Suria KLCC


Suria KLCC is a 140,000 m2 (1,500,000 sq ft) upscale retail center at the foot of the Petronas Towers. It features mostly foreign luxury goods and high-street labels. Its attractions include an art gallery, an underwater aquarium and also a Science center. Boasting approximately 300 stores, Suria KLCC is touted as one of the largest shopping malls in Malaysia.[29] The Petronas Philharmonic Hall, also built at the base of the towers, is frequently associated with Suria KLCC's floorspace. During holidays or celebration days, Suria KLCC is the top spot to see the decorations especially at the main entrances and also in Centre Court. It also promotes the uniqueness and beauty of Malaysia's cultural diversity towards the visitors.



Spanning 17 acres (6.9 ha) below the building is the KLCC Park with jogging and walking paths, a fountain with incorporated light show, wading pools, and a children's playground.



The towers feature a double decker skybridge connecting the two towers on the 41st and 42nd floors, holding the record for the highest 2-story bridge in the world.[30] The skybridge also functions as a crucial design feature facilitating movement between the two towers during high winds.[31] The bridge is 170 m (558 ft) above the ground and 58.4 m (192 ft) long, weighing 750 tons.[32] The same floor is also known as the podium, since visitors going to higher levels have to change elevators here. Dynamic analyses were performed and iterated to support the final design by studying the structural behavior of the twin towers to time-varying loads such as earthquakes and wind.[33][failed verification]The skybridge is open to all visitors, but tickets are limited to about 1,000 people per day, with around half available to be purchased online, and the other half obtained on a first-come, first-served basis. Initially, the visit was free but in 2010, the tickets started being sold by Petronas. Visitors can choose to opt for package one which is just a visit to the skybridge or go for package two to go to the skybridge and all the way to level 86.[34] Visitors are only allowed on the 41st floor as the 42nd floor can only be used by the tenants of the building.[35]

The skybridge also acts as a safety device, so that in the event of a fire or other emergency in one tower, tenants can evacuate by crossing the skybridge to the other tower.[36] The total evacuation triggered by a bomb hoax on 12 September 2001 (the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City) showed that the bridge would not be useful if both towers need to be emptied simultaneously, as the capacity of the staircases was insufficient for such an event.[37] Plans thus call for the lifts to be used if both towers need to be evacuated, and a successful drill following the revised plan was conducted in 2005.

There is a two hinged arch that supports the skybridge with arch legs, each 51 metres (167 ft) long, that are bolted to level 29 of each of the towers.[38] After being constructed on the ground, the skybridge was lifted into place on the towers over a period of three days[39] in July 1995.[38] Residing on the 41st and 42nd floors, the skybridge connects a conference room, an executive dining room and a prayer room.[39]

Lift system


The main bank of lifts is located in the centre of each tower. All main lifts are double-decker with the lower deck of the lift taking passengers to even-numbered floors and upper deck to odd-numbered floors. To reach an odd-numbered floor from ground level, passengers must take an escalator to the upper deck of the lift.[40]

There are 29 double-deck passenger elevators, but there are different sets that service certain floors of the towers, specifically two sets of six of these double-deck passenger elevators to floors 1–23 and 1–37 respectively. Another set of 5 passenger lifts transport passengers to the 41st and 42nd floors where they can switch lifts to reach the upper zones of the buildings, each double-deck passenger lift with the capacity of 52 passengers or, 26 passengers per deck. There are also 6 heavy-duty elevators for utility.

The lift system information of the Petronas Towers

  • PL7A-PL7C (Tower 1) & PL8A-PL8C (Tower 2) (Parking & Podium Passenger Lift): P5-P1, C, G, 1, 2, 2M, 3–5 (PL7A & PL8A non-stop at level 2M)
  • SL6 (Tower 1) & SL7 (Tower 2) (Parking & Podium Service Lift): P5-P1, 1, 2, 2M, 3–5 (SL7 non-stop at level 2M)
  • PL14 (Tower 1) & PL15 (Tower 2) (Concert Passenger Lift): G, 2, 2M, 3, 4
  • A1-A6 (Tower 1) & A7-A12 (Tower 2) (Bank A Passenger Lift): G/1, 8–23
  • B1-B6 (Tower 1) & B7-B12 (Tower 2) (Bank B Passenger Lift): G/1, 23–37
  • CF1-CF2 (Tower 1) & CF3-CF4 (Tower 2) (Conference Shuttle Lift): 36, 37, 40–43
  • C1-C6 (Tower 1) & C7-C12 (Tower 2) (Bank C Passenger Lift): 41/42, 44–61
  • D1-D3 (Tower 1) & D4-D6 (Tower 2) (Bank D Passenger Lift): 41/42, 61, 69–83
  • E1-E3 (Tower 1) & E4-E6 (Tower 2) (Bank E Passenger Lift): 41/42, 61–73
  • TE1-TE2 (Tower 1) & TE3-TE4 (Tower 2) (Upper Level Passenger Lift): 83, 85, 86
  • SH1-SH5 (Tower 1) & SH6-SH10 (Tower 2) (Shuttle Lift): G/1, 41/42
  • S1-S2 (Tower 1) & S4-S5 (Tower 2) (Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2–6, 8–38, 40–84
  • S3 (Tower 1) & S6 (Tower 2) (Lower Level Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2–6, 8–37
  • F1-F2 (Tower 1) & F3-F4 (Tower 2) (Fireman Service Lift): P1, C, CM, G, 1–6, 8–38, 40–84, 84M1, 84M2, 85, 86 (F1 & F3 non-stop at Level 1)

Service building


The service building is to the east of the Petronas Towers and contains the chiller plant system and the cooling towers to keep the Petronas Towers cool and comfortable.

Ticketing system


In order to visit the Petronas Towers, visitors must first purchase tickets. Tickets can be purchased online or at the counter. Discounted tickets for seniors are available for those 55 years of age and above. Queues for tickets can get quite long sometimes. The complete ticketing system is provided by the Malaysian-based Longbow Technologies Sdn Bhd.[citation needed]

  • The towers are prominently featured and mentioned by name in the 1999 film Entrapment, with numerous scenes filmed at the towers, with the climax set on the skybridge. CGI was used to add slums to the bottom of the towers.[41]
  • The towers appear in the first episode of the US TV series 24.
  • Several scenes of the Bollywood film Don: The Chase Begins Again were also filmed in the Petronas Towers and its skybridge.
  • In Part 1 of the Phineas and Ferb episode "Phineas and Ferb Save Summer!", the towers are visible during the musical number "Summer All Over the World".
  • Eidos Interactive has twice used the towers for inspiration in their video games. In the 2002 Hitman 2: Silent Assassin, the Malaysia-based levels Basement Killing, The Graveyard Shift, and The Jacuzzi Job all take place in the Petronas Towers.[42] In 2010's Just Cause 2, the fictional Panau Falls Casino is based on the Petronas Towers.
  • A 2002 episode of the animated series Jackie Chan Adventures titled "When Pigs Fly" (Season 3, Episode 6), features the towers.
  • A 2002 episode of The Amazing Race 3 ("Why Did You Have to Take Your Pants Off?!") featured the Petronas Towers as part of a task in which the competing team had to have their photograph taken in front of the towers.[43] The towers were seen again 21 seasons later on an episode of The Amazing Race 24 ("Smarter, Not Harder").[44]
  • The towers made an appearance in the animated series Totally Spies! in an episode titled "Man or Machine".
  • The opening of the 2010 film Fair Game had scenes with the twin towers along with the skyline of Kuala Lumpur.[45]
  • A number of scenes for the 2012 Hong Kong-Chinese action film Viral Factor included shots of the twin towers.[46]
  • In the 2016 film Independence Day: Resurgence, the towers are dropped onto the London Tower Bridge by aliens, with a character commenting: "They like to get the landmarks".[47]
  • In the 2009 History Channel original program Life After People, the towers make an appearance in the episode titled "Bound and Buried", and it is stated that the towers would survive approximately 500 years without human maintenance, eventually collapsing from the weathering and erosion of Malaysia's tropical climate.
  • The towers are seen on the cover of the 2005 album Controversy Loves Company by American pop punk band The Audition.

See also



  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Petronas Towers 1". The Skyscraper Center. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012.
  2. ^ "25 World-Famous Skyscrapers". CNN Travel. 6 August 2013.
  3. ^ "Emporis building complex ID 100172". Emporis. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
  4. ^ Petronas Towers at Glass Steel and Stone (archived)
  5. ^ "Petronas Towers". SkyscraperPage.
  6. ^ Petronas Towers at Structurae
  7. ^ "Tall Buildings in Numbers". CTBUH Journal. Vol. 2010, no. 2. 2010. pp. 40–41. Archived from the original on 24 July 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  8. ^ Lee, P. K. K., ed. (1997). Structures in the New Millennium: Proceedings of the Fourth International Kerensky Conference on Structures in the New Millennium, Hong Kong, 3–5 September 1997. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema. ISBN 90-5410-898-3.
  9. ^ Koppen, Paul. "Pudong and Shanghai World Financial Center". support.tue.nl. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  10. ^ "Know About". ConstructingWorld. Archived from the original on 24 July 2018.
  11. ^ Wee, C. J. Wan-Ling, ed. (2002). Local Cultures and the "New Asia": The State, Culture, and Capitalism in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 193.
  12. ^ Moskal, Greg (2004). Modern Buildings: Identifying Bilateral and Rotational Symmetry. New York: Rosen Classroom. p. 28. ISBN 0-8239-8989-5.
  13. ^ Galal Abada (2004). "Petronas Office Towers" (PDF). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Archived from the original on 1 October 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  14. ^ Sebestyén, Gyula (1998). Construction: Craft to Industry. London: Taylor & Francis. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-419-20920-1.
  15. ^ Žaknić, Ivan; Smith, Matthew; Rice, Doleres B. (1998). 100 of the World's Tallest Buildings. Mulgrave, Victoria: Images Publishing. p. 208. ISBN 978-1-875498-32-1.
  16. ^ a b National Geographic Channel International / Caroline Anstey (2005), Megastructures: Petronas Twin Towers
  17. ^ Baker, Clyde N. Jr.; Drumwright, Elliott; Joseph, Leonard; Tarique Azam (November 1996). "The Taller the Deeper". Civil Engineering. 66 (11). ASCE: 3A–6A.
  18. ^ "Detailed Structural Analysis". The Petronas Towers. 18 March 2010. Archived from the original on 1 November 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  19. ^ Wells, Matthew (2005). Skyscrapers: Structure and Design. London: Laurence King Publishing. p. 170.
  20. ^ "Information Malaysia." (2005). Berita Publ. Sdn. Bhd.
  21. ^ Taranath, Bungale S. (2004). Wind and Earthquake Resistant Buildings: Structural Analysis and Design. CRC Press. p. 748.
  22. ^ Crerar, Simon (15 October 2012). "Planes, Caves and Skyscrapers Among Fearless Skydiver Felix Baumgartner's Fabulous Feats". PerthNow. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  23. ^ "Petronas Towers (451 Meters), Malaysia". felixbaumgartner.com. Felix Baumgartner. Archived from the original on 22 September 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
  24. ^ Yoong, Sean (12 September 2001). "World's Tallest Towers, IBM Building in Malaysia Evacuated After Threats". Lubbock Online: The Avalanche Journal. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  25. ^ "Fire Forces Evacuation at Malaysia Towers". CBS News. 4 November 2005. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  26. ^ "'Spiderman' Scales Malaysia Tower". BBC News. 1 September 2009. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  27. ^ "'Spiderman' Has Another Go at Twin Tower". The Star Online. 20 March 2007. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  28. ^ Sheela Chandran (25 August 2005). "Documentary on the Petronas Twin Towers". The Star (Malaysia). Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  29. ^ de Ledesma, Charles; Lewis, Mark; Savage, Pauline (2003). Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei (4th ed.). New York: Rough Guides. p. 132. ISBN 1-84353-094-5.
  30. ^ Frankham, Steve (2008). Malaysia and Singapore. Bath: Footprint Travel Guides. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-906098-11-7.
  31. ^ Moskal, Greg (2004). Modern Buildings: Identifying Bilateral and Rotational Symmetry and Transformations. i Rosen Classroom. p. 26.
  32. ^ Chang, Fu-Kuo, ed. (2005). Structural Health Monitoring 2005: Advancements and Challenges for Implementation. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: DEStech Publications. p. 270. ISBN 1-932078-51-7.
  33. ^ Chalhoub, Michel Soto (1990). "Dynamic Analysis and Design of KLCC Twin Towers for Seismic and Wind Loads". Parsons Engineering Library.
  34. ^ "The Petronas Towers Skybridge". ThePetronasTowers.com. 25 October 2010. Archived from the original on 7 November 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  35. ^ Rowthorn, Chris; Cohen, Muhammad; Williams, China (2008). Borneo. Footscray, Victoria: Lonely Planet. p. 71.
  36. ^ Wood, A.; Chow, W. K.; McGrail, D. (2005). "The Skybridge as an Evacuation Option for Tall Buildings for Highrise Cities in the Far East". Journal of Applied Fire Science. 13 (2): 113–124. doi:10.2190/1417-hh0k-1w74-170r. hdl:10397/19843.
  37. ^ "World's Tallest Towers in Malaysia Evacuated After Threats". People's Daily. 12 September 2001. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  38. ^ a b "The Petronas Twin Towers Official Website". Petronas Twin Towers. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
  39. ^ a b Wheeler, Mark (May 1996). "The World's Tallest Building". Popular Mechanics. pp. 78–81 – via Google Books.
  40. ^ "Petronas Towers Lift System". The Petronas Towers. 25 October 2010. Archived from the original on 7 November 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  41. ^ "Entrapment Rapped by Malaysian PM". BBC News. 22 June 1999. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  42. ^ "Hitman 2 Silent Assassin Prima Official eGuide". Scribd.com. 26 December 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
  43. ^ Balderas, Christopher (30 August 2018). "20 of the Sickest Places Featured on The Amazing Race (That We Can Visit Too)". TheTravel. Archived from the original on 5 November 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  44. ^ Kwiatkowski, Elizabeth (17 March 2014). "'The Amazing Race: All-Stars' "Newlyweds" Team Brendon Villegas and Rachel Reilly Survive Non-Elimination Leg". Reality TV World. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  45. ^ "5 Hollywood Films Shot in Malaysia! Do You Know Them All?". Monga. 3 May 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  46. ^ "The Viral Factor". HKMDB. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  47. ^ James Sivalingam (23 April 2016). "Petronas Twin Towers Features in Independence Day Sequel.. But It's Not Good News". New Straits Times. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
Preceded by World's tallest building architectural element
452.0 m (1,482.9 ft)

Succeeded by
Preceded by World's tallest twin towers
452.0 m (1,482.9 ft)

Succeeded by